Unboxing & Planting Guide
What to do when your order arrives
Not ready to plant yet?
If you are not ready to plant, don’t worry - you have several options! The best option, if the temperature is above freezing, is to "heel" them in. Dig a hole in a shady spot big enough to accommodate the roots of the entire bundle of bare root plants, then mound up soil or sawdust to completely cover the roots. The roots need to be kept moist but not waterlogged. They can go into a hole in the ground or into a container with sawdust or similar material. Before heeling in, remove the plastic bag and shredded paper that surrounds the roots. You can briefly keep your leafless bare root plants in the plastic bags they came in, in a cool place where plants will not freeze or dry out; for example, in a garage (ideally 35-45°F). DO NOT store your dormant bare root plants in a warm place, for instance, in your house, for more than a few days if they are going to be planted in cold conditions. Plants kept under warm conditions for an extended period lose hardiness and may then be damaged by even mild frost. If you can’t heel the bare root plants in, open the bag containing the roots and spray the roots as needed with water to keep them moist but not soggy. Keep in a shaded place and try not to leave puddle of water in the plastic bag. You can poke small holes in the bottom to allow drainage. Close the top of the bag to retain the moisture and check periodically to be sure the roots are not sitting in water or have become dry. Remember that the sooner your plants are in their permanent location, the better chance they have of thriving!
Digging the hole
Begin by digging a hole that is at least twice as wide and the same depth as the roots. A deep crater is not good because as the disturbed soil settles, the plant will sink. The soil should be moist. However, if it’s very wet, wait until the soil will break apart when you squeeze a clump (which is not always possible in the Pacific Northwest. We have had success planting in wet soil). In order to make a gradual transition from natural soil to the amended soil, use a shovel — or better still a spading fork — to fracture and crack the walls and the bottom of the hole. This will make it easier for new roots to penetrate unhampered into the native soil. You can amend your back-fill soil by adding up to 20%, about two shovels full, of finished compost, leaf mold or peat moss. Avoid potting mixes, manure or other fertilizers in the planting hole. You may add lime or sulfur to adjust the pH if your soil test shows it is needed. There is some debate about how deep to plant your trees. We plant trees at the depth they were planted in the nursery or at most two or three inches deeper. If yours is a grafted or budded tree, make sure the graft union remains at least two inches above the ground. Should the graft union become buried, roots could form above the graft, negating any dwarfing qualities of the rootstock.
Planting the tree
Remove any shredded paper that came packed around the tree roots. Don’t put it in the hole! It can become part of the above ground mulch. Trim broken roots and branches. While you are digging the hole it is very helpful, though not necessary, to soak the roots in a bucket of water. The plant roots can soak up to a day, but 6 to 8 hours is optimal - even an hour will suffice if you are pressed for time. Peach trees seem to especially benefit from this soaking. If it’s a sunny day, keep your tree roots covered and pull your trees out one by one so the roots don’t dry. Make a little mound in the bottom of the hole and spread the roots so they are facing outward and slightly downward. If you have purchased Mycopaks place them in contact with the roots in the planting hole. Use one Mycopak for every foot of tree height. Shovel the soil back into the hole and gently tamp the soil down after every few shovels-full to make sure there are no air pockets around the roots. If you are planting in clay soil, don’t tamp. Instead, backfill half the hole, flood the hole with water, jiggle the tree gently to work the air bubbles out, finish filling, and flood and jiggle again. Then, use a digging fork to loosen the soil next to the planting hole, 1-3 feet out from the trunk. Mulch the whole area with straw, wood chips, or shredded bark. Water your tree deeply when planting is completed.
Warm Weather Planting Instructions
If your temperatures have warmed and are regularly into the 70’s each day, you need to take extra care when planting dormant bare root or potted plants, and even actively growing potted plants. Warmer air temperatures encourage faster shoot growth than root growth, creating water stress in the tree/shrub. Providing shade helps to reduce the water needs of the top of the plant and gives the root system time to catch up with the top.
If you choose to plant out in a permanent location right away avoid planting on a hot sunny day and plant in early evening or early morning. Plants will do best if the weather is overcast or raining for several days following planting. Mulch the soil surface 1-2” deep after planting (not touching the trunk or canes) and irrigate deeply, then provide shade until the plants are well-established.
Throughout the spring and summer it is important to water the plants deeply about once a week if it has not rained. Keep the ground around the plant free of weeds that will rob the soil of water and nutrients.
Sprinkling new plants in the morning will increase the humidity and help the plants. Sprinkling in mid-day can burn the leaves if water gets on them, and evening sprinkling can encourage disease.
As an alternative to shade, you could also whitewash dormant shrubs and trees to keep the plants cool (white reflects the sun and prevents the painted areas from warming up). Make a 50/50 mix of interior white latex paint and water. Apply as a spray, or brush from the bottom up (to avoid damaging buds).
Sometimes leaves of plants will droop in summer heat and sun. This can occur even when the plant is well watered. If the soil is already adequately moist, adding more water will not help. Occasionally a stressed plant will drop all its leaves and grow a new set in a couple of weeks. Do not fertilize until you see the new growth coming out. In any case do not fertilize a newly planted plant for 2 weeks.
Another option is to plant your new plants in a temporary, shady location, mulch, and water regularly through the summer. In the fall, when the worst of the summer heat has passed, move the plants to their permanent location. By the following spring they will be well-established and ready to perform.
You may also temporarily plant into a container, which needs to be large enough to accommodate the root system plus an inch or so. The container should be filled with a good quality potting mix, not garden soil. The container can then be placed in a temporary location with afternoon shade and wind protection, and the plant put in its permanent location in fall.
Mulching & Weed Control
It is very important for the first three to five years that weeds not invade the root zone of your tree. The weeds take moisture and nutrients that your plant needs. One way to control weeds is by mulching. A mulch of leaves, newspaper, bark, wood chips, well-aged compost, or straw, renewed each spring from around the base of the tree to about a foot beyond the reach of the branches, will add to the fertility of the soil. We have found that a heavy mulch of oat straw over soil loosened in this manner will encourage worms and rapidly improve the soil’s tilth. Try to keep the mulch at least two inches from the trunk. If gophers or other root damaging rodents are a serious problem in your area, you can line the tree’s hole and the trunk of the tree itself with galvanized fencing or ‘hardware cloth’. If your trees are planted in or near a lawn, it is important that you NOT use ‘weed and feed’ products on the grass or you may kill or damage your tree. If you are using a soaker hose as a form of irrigation, it is very important to place the hose under your mulch layer. The important thing to remember is that you can’t plant trees directly in a hole in the lawn without mulching and watering, and expect your tree to grow well. Your tree roots feed and seek water near the surface and cannot compete with established grass. Your tree may struggle to survive and will often stay the same size year after year.